Between 40 and 60 percent of the people in developing countries live more than 8 kilometers from a health care facility.
Transport can have a wide range of positive and negative effects on health. The effects of transport on health may be direct (for example, good transport can ensure better healthcare and lower maternal mortality) and indirect (dirty transport or high traffic volume can cause pollution which in turn can cause health problems). Positive impacts on health can include those gained through enhanced social, educational, cultural, recreational and economic opportunities. Negative impacts of transport can include pollution, traffic injuries, noise, stress and anxiety, danger and displacement. The scientifically-defined negative health impacts of transport need to be weighed against the need for efficient and effective transport systems and the broader environmental and social impacts of different transport options when it comes to making planning and policy decisions about transport.