The construction and upgrading of transport infrastructure is one of the most frequent causes of involuntary resettlement across many parts of the world. It is also a frequent source of disagreement and conflict between communities and public authorities. The disruption to people's homes, businesses and livelihoods caused by the needs of the alignment for new infrastructure are very emotive subjects.
Many countries have established procedures for assessing land values and establishing compensation procedures for land required by infrastructure construction. Many societies, particularly in rural Africa, also have traditional, customary practices and institutions to settle and decide on land disputes.
Donor agencies are increasingly sensitive to the potential negative impact arising from involuntary resettlement, especially on the more vulnerable members of developing societies. They have developed detailed processes to assess the needs and impact of involuntary resettlement and put in place actions to ameliorate and mitigate such effects.